 ## Should you Trade with the Kelly Criterion?

The Kelly Criterion gives an optimal result for betting based on the probability of winning a bet and how much you receive for winning. If you check out Wikipedia or Investopedia, you’ll see formulas like this:

f^{*} = p - \frac{1-p}{b-1}

which gives you the optimal amount to bet (f^*) given the probability of winning (p) and the payout you’re given for the bet (b). For example, if you have a bet that gives you a 52% chance of winning and you have 1:1 odds (bet 1 to win 1 and your money back, so you get a total payout of 2), then you should bet 4% of your capital on each game (0.52 – 0.48/(2-1) = 0.04).

This is fine for a binary, win-lose outcome. The trouble is, investing in stocks don’t follow this simple model. If you make a winning trade, you could get a 10% return, 8% return, 6.23%, 214%, or any other value.
So how do we change our binary formula to a continuous model?

## Continuous Kelly

Ed Thorpe and Claude Shannon (yes, the Claude Shannon for us nerds out there) used the Kelly Criterion to manage their black jack bankroll and clean up in Vegas in the 60s. Seeing the applicability of this method, Thorpe extended it to Wall Street using it to manage his investments while running his own hedge fund. Developing a continuous Kelly model isn’t actually very straightforward, but Thorpe offers this series of steps which you can find in Section 7 here.

Most people probably don’t care about the derivation, so we’ll just jump to this new model which winds up being deceptively simple:

f^{*} = \frac{\mu - r}{\sigma^2}

Here, \mu are the mean returns, r is the risk-free rate, and \sigma is the standard deviation of returns. All of this looks very much like the Sharpe Ratio, but instead of dividing by the standard deviation, we divide by the variance.

Now that we have our new formula, let’s put an example strategy or two together to see how it works in theory.

## Long-Only Portfolio with the Kelly Criterion

We’re going to start simple to put this into practice with a long-only portfolio that will rebalance based on the Kelly Criterion. When trading with Kelly position sizing, there are a few things to keep in mind.

First, our Kelly factor (f^*) can go over 1, which implies use of leverage. This may or may not be feasible depending on the trader and leverage may incur additional borrowing costs. Clearly, it increases your risk and volatility as well so not everyone will want to trade with leverage.

Second, we need to estimate the mean and standard deviation of our security. This can be affected by our look-back period. Do we use one year? One month? Or some other time period? One year seems to be standard, so we’ll start with that. Also, the time period you choose may be related to the speed of your trading strategy. If you’re trading minute-by-minute, perhaps a one-month look-back period makes more sense.

Finally, we need to determine how frequently we’ll rebalance our portfolio according to our updated Kelly factor. This can create a lot of transaction costs if it occurs too frequently. There could also be tax implications associated with selling positions quickly, which are beyond the scope of this model. For our purposes, we’ll rebalance every day so that we’re always holding the estimated, optimal position.

Ok, with that out of the way, let’s get some Python packages.

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import yfinance as yf


## Calculating the Kelly Criterion for Stocks

Our first function is going to be straightforward. All we’re doing is plugging the mean, standard deviation, and our interest rate into that formula above and returning f-star.

def calcKelly(mean, std, r):
return (mean - r) / std**2


Our example is going to be a simple, vectorized backtest to quickly give you the flavor of using the Kelly formula for position sizing. We’ll write one more helper function that will take our returns as a Pandas Series and return the f-star for each time step.

def getKellyFactor(returns: pd.Series, r=0.01,
max_leverage=None, periods=252, rolling=True):
'''
Calculates the Kelly Factor for each time step based
on the parameters provided.
'''
if rolling:
std = returns.rolling(periods).std()
mean = returns.rolling(periods).mean()
else:
std = returns.expanding(periods).std()
mean = returns.expanding(periods).mean()
r_daily = np.log((1 + r) ** (1 / 252))
kelly_factor = calcKelly(mean, std, r_daily)
# No shorts
kelly_factor = np.where(kelly_factor<0, 0, kelly_factor)
if max_leverage is not None:
kelly_factor = np.where(kelly_factor>max_leverage,
max_leverage, kelly_factor)

return kelly_factor


Let’s use some real data to demonstrate this. I chose the SPY, which is the S&P 500 ETF which was introduced back in 1993. We can get it’s history through 2020 from YFinance with the code below:

ticker = 'SPY'
yfObj = yf.Ticker(ticker)
data = yfObj.history(start='1993-01-01', end='2020-12-31')
# Drop unused columns
data.drop(['Open', 'High', 'Low', 'Volume', 'Dividends',
'Stock Splits'], axis=1, inplace=True)


Now we’re ready to put this into action in a strategy. A key assumption stated by Thorpe in the Kelly formula above is the lack of short selling. With that in mind, we’re going to start with the simplest strategy I can think of, a buy-and-hold strategy that will rebalance the portfolio between cash and equities according the Kelly factor.

For this, we’re going to assign a percentage of our total portfolio to the SPY based on the Kelly factor. If leverage increases above 1, then we will have a negative cash value to reflect our borrowing. I didn’t get very granular, so I just used the same interest rate from 1993-2020 and assumed you can borrow and lend at that same rate – which is really a ridiculous assumption because nobody is going to let you, dear retail investor, pay 1% to lever up your stock portfolio (commodities, FOREX, crypto, and other markets typically have more leverage available). You can get daily 10-year rates or whatever treasury instrument suits you as a baseline from FRED, the US Treasury site, or your favorite data provider to use real data in your Kelly calculation.

Let’s get to the function.

def LongOnlyKellyStrategy(data, r=0.02, max_leverage=None, periods=252,
rolling=True):
data['returns'] = data['Close'] / data['Close'].shift(1)
data['log_returns'] = np.log(data['returns'])
data['kelly_factor'] = getKellyFactor(data['log_returns'],
r, max_leverage, periods, rolling)
cash = np.zeros(data.shape)
equity = np.zeros(data.shape)
portfolio = cash.copy()
portfolio = 1
cash = 1
for i, _row in enumerate(data.iterrows()):
row = _row
if np.isnan(row['kelly_factor']):
portfolio[i] += portfolio[i-1]
cash[i] += cash[i-1]
continue

portfolio[i] += cash[i-1] * (1 + r)**(1/252) + equity[i-1] * row['returns']
equity[i] += portfolio[i] * row['kelly_factor']
cash[i] += portfolio[i] * (1 - row['kelly_factor'])

data['cash'] = cash
data['equity'] = equity
data['portfolio'] = portfolio
data['strat_returns'] = data['portfolio'] / data['portfolio'].shift(1)
data['strat_log_returns'] = np.log(data['strat_returns'])
data['strat_cum_returns'] = data['strat_log_returns'].cumsum()
data['cum_returns'] = data['log_returns'].cumsum()
return data


We’re going to run a max-leverage strategy and compare it to a baseline, buy-and-hold.

kelly = LongOnlyKellyStrategy(data.copy())

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(12, 8), sharex=True)
ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['cum_returns']) * 100, label='Buy and Hold')
ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['strat_cum_returns']) * 100, label='Kelly Model')
ax.set_ylabel('Returns (%)')
ax.set_title('Buy-and-hold and Long-Only Strategy with Kelly Sizing')
ax.legend()

ax.plot(kelly['kelly_factor'])
ax.set_ylabel('Leverage')
ax.set_xlabel('Date')
ax.set_title('Kelly Factor')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()


Our model blew up spectacularly! Without any constraints on our leverage, it quickly shot up to 50x leverage – and did great for a bit – but then hit some major losses and plummeted below the baseline. It wound up losing our initial investment fairly quickly.

Important lesson here, while the Kelly Criterion may give you the optimal allocation to trade with, it is only as good as the assumptions that underpin it. Note that this is *not* a predictive tool, we’re looking back in time and assuming the previous year’s volatility is a good guide going forward.

We can do a few different things to de-risk this while gaining the benefits of a better money management strategy. First, we can cap our leverage to something more reasonable, say 3 or 4x (although I’d even keep it lower myself). Let’s see how this impacts our model.

def getStratStats(log_returns: pd.Series,
risk_free_rate: float = 0.02):
stats = {}  # Total Returns
stats['tot_returns'] = np.exp(log_returns.sum()) - 1

# Mean Annual Returns
stats['annual_returns'] = np.exp(log_returns.mean() * 252) - 1

# Annual Volatility
stats['annual_volatility'] = log_returns.std() * np.sqrt(252)

# Sortino Ratio
annualized_downside = log_returns.loc[log_returns<0].std() * \
np.sqrt(252)
stats['sortino_ratio'] = (stats['annual_returns'] - \
risk_free_rate) / annualized_downside

# Sharpe Ratio
stats['sharpe_ratio'] = (stats['annual_returns'] - \
risk_free_rate) / stats['annual_volatility']

# Max Drawdown
cum_returns = log_returns.cumsum() - 1
peak = cum_returns.cummax()
drawdown = peak - cum_returns
max_idx = drawdown.argmax()
stats['max_drawdown'] = 1 - np.exp(cum_returns[max_idx]) / np.exp(peak[max_idx])

# Max Drawdown Duration
strat_dd = drawdown[drawdown==0]
strat_dd_diff = strat_dd.index[1:] - strat_dd.index[:-1]
strat_dd_days = strat_dd_diff.map(lambda x: x.days).values
strat_dd_days = np.hstack([strat_dd_days,
(drawdown.index[-1] - strat_dd.index[-1]).days])
stats['max_drawdown_duration'] = strat_dd_days.max()
return stats

max_leverage = np.arange(1, 6)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(15, 10), sharex=True)
data_dict = {}
df_stats = pd.DataFrame()
for l in max_leverage:
kelly = LongOnlyKellyStrategy(data.copy(), max_leverage=l)
data_dict[l] = kelly.copy()

ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['strat_cum_returns']) * 100,
label=f'Max Leverage = {l}')

ax.plot(kelly['kelly_factor'], label=f'Max Leverage = {l}')

stats = getStratStats(kelly['strat_log_returns'])
df_stats = pd.concat([df_stats,
pd.DataFrame(stats, index=[f'Leverage={l}'])])

ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['cum_returns']) * 100, label='Buy and Hold',
linestyle=':')
ax.set_ylabel('Returns (%)')
ax.set_title('Buy-and-hold and Long-Only Strategy with Kelly Sizing')
ax.legend()

ax.set_ylabel('Leverage')
ax.set_xlabel('Date')
ax.set_title('Kelly Factor')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()

stats = pd.DataFrame(getStratStats(kelly['log_returns']), index=['Buy and Hold'])
df_stats = pd.concat([stats, df_stats])
df_stats


There’s a lot to unpack here depending on the leverage ratio. For clarity, a leverage ratio of 1, means that we aren’t actually using any leverage, we’re maxing out by putting all of our portfolio into the SPY. This more conservative model, winds up with lower total returns than the buy and hold approach, but it has a shorter drawdown with less volatility.

Allowing leverage to max out at 2x increases the total returns over buy-and-hold, but with more volatility and lower risk-adjusted returns. It’s a bit tough to see these models in the plot above, so we’ll zoom in on the these results below.

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(15, 8), sharex=True)

ax.plot(np.exp(data_dict['strat_cum_returns'])*100,
label='Max Leverage=1')
ax.plot(np.exp(data_dict['strat_cum_returns'])*100,
label='Max Leverage=2')
ax.plot(np.exp(data_dict['cum_returns'])*100,
ax.set_ylabel('Returns (%)')
ax.set_title('Low-Leverage and Baseline Models')
ax.legend()

ax.plot(data_dict['kelly_factor'], label='Max Leverage = 1')
ax.plot(data_dict['kelly_factor'], label='Max Leverage = 2')
ax.set_xlabel('Date')
ax.set_ylabel('Leverage')
ax.set_title('Kelly Factor')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()


Here, we can see that the Kelly Criterion tends to get out of the market and go to cash as the volatility increases during large drawdowns. The worst of the crashes in 2000 and 2008 are avoided. The COVID crash in 2020, however, was much more rapid and wound up leading to the big losses – particularly the more leveraged the strategy was – as the strategy stayed in the market during the worst of it and got crushed.

Unsurprisingly, the more highly leveraged models all had more volatility with much larger drawdowns. They gave us higher total returns, but the risk metrics all show they did so with a lot more risk.

Above, I mentioned a few ways we can cut down on our leverage beyond just a hard cap.

## Larger Sample Size

We can increase the sample size by increasing the number of periods we use for calculating the mean and standard deviation of our returns. This will lead to a slower reacting model, but may lead to better estimates and thus better results.

max_leverage = 3

periods = 252 * np.arange(1, 5)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(15, 10), sharex=True)
data_dict = {}
df_stats = pd.DataFrame()
for p in periods:
p = int(p)
kelly = LongOnlyKellyStrategy(data.copy(), periods=p,
max_leverage=max_leverage)
data_dict[p] = kelly.copy()

ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['strat_cum_returns']) * 100,
label=f'Days = {p}')

ax.plot(kelly['kelly_factor'], label=f'Days = {p}', linewidth=0.5)

stats = getStratStats(kelly['strat_log_returns'])
df_stats = pd.concat([df_stats,
pd.DataFrame(stats, index=[f'Days={p}'])])

ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['cum_returns']) * 100, label='Buy and Hold',
linestyle=':')
ax.set_ylabel('Returns (%)')
ax.set_title(
'Buy-and-hold and Long-Only Strategy with Kelly Sizing ' +
'and Variable Lookback Periods')
ax.legend()

ax.set_ylabel('Leverage')
ax.set_xlabel('Date')
ax.set_title('Kelly Factor')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()

stats = pd.DataFrame(getStratStats(kelly['log_returns']), index=['Buy and Hold'])
df_stats = pd.concat([stats, df_stats])
df_stats


These longer lookback periods tend to increase the time out of market, which extends the drawdown durations in many cases. But they wind up with higher overall returns, at least up to the 4-year lookback period, One thing that makes these comparisons somewhat unfair is that they require more time and data before they enter the market in the first place. So the SPY gets to compounding immediately, the 1-year model gets going after 252 trading days have passed, and so forth. Regardless, we still see good gains from these longer term systems.

One more example of this before moving on. I included an argument called rolling in our function that defaults to True. It’s almost always better to include more data in our estimates, so if we set this to False, we switch out a rolling horizon for an expanding horizon calculation. This latter approach will be identical to the rolling horizon model at day 252 under the standard settings, but then will diverge because it doesn’t drop old data. So the mean and standard deviation of the SPY will contain the last 500 data points at day 500. This quickly increases our sample size as the model moves forward in time. In addition, the number of periods we use now serves as a minimum number of data points required before we get a result for our Kelly factor.

kelly = LongOnlyKellyStrategy(data.copy(), rolling=False)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(12, 8), sharex=True)
ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['cum_returns']) * 100, label='Buy and Hold')
ax.plot(np.exp(kelly['strat_cum_returns']) * 100, label='Kelly Model')
ax.set_ylabel('Returns (%)')
ax.set_title(
'Buy-and-hold and Long-Only Strategy with Kelly Sizing ' +
'and Expanding Horizon')
ax.legend()

ax.plot(kelly['kelly_factor'])
ax.set_ylabel('Leverage')
ax.set_xlabel('Date')
ax.set_title('Expanding Kelly Factor')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()


In this case, we see that the Kelly factor largely decreases over time as the sample grows. It does begin to increase after 2008, however, it performed very poorly after the 2000 crash – which it was highly levered heading into – and was never able to recover.

## Kelly Sizing and a Trading Strategy

So far we have just looked at applying the Kelly Criterion to a single asset to manage our cash-equity balance. What if we want to use it with a trading strategy on a single asset? Could we improve our risk adjusted returns in this scenario.
The answer is “yes,” but we do need to be careful in how we apply it. If we run the risk of blowing up thanks to leverage while trading the S&P 500, this can be even more of a risk with a given trading strategy.

We’re going to keep things as simple as possible here and run a moving average cross-over strategy. Again, we’ll keep all the assumptions about liquidity, leverage, and no short selling that we laid out above.

There are a couple of changes we’ll need to make to run this. First, we will need to figure out our position, which is just going to be when the short-term SMA is above the long-term SMA.

Second, instead of using the mean and standard deviation of the underlying asset, we’re going to rely on the stats from our strategy. This will use the stats from using our strategy without position sizing.

The code is given below and is similar to what you saw in our long-only strategy.

# Kelly money management for trading strategy
def KellySMACrossOver(data, SMA1=50, SMA2=200, r=0.01,
periods=252, max_leverage=None, rolling=True):
'''
Sizes a simple moving average cross-over strategy according
to the Kelly Criterion.
'''
data['returns'] = data['Close'] / data['Close'].shift(1)
data['log_returns'] = np.log(data['returns'])
# Calculate positions
data['SMA1'] = data['Close'].rolling(SMA1).mean()
data['SMA2'] = data['Close'].rolling(SMA2).mean()
data['position'] = np.nan
data['position'] = np.where(data['SMA1']>data['SMA2'], 1, 0)
data['position'] = data['position'].ffill().fillna(0)

data['_strat_returns'] = data['position'].shift(1) * \
data['returns']
data['_strat_log_returns'] = data['position'].shift(1) * \
data['log_returns']

# Calculate Kelly Factor using the strategy's returns
kf = getKellyFactor(data['_strat_log_returns'], r,
max_leverage, periods, rolling)
data['kelly_factor'] = kf

cash = np.zeros(data.shape)
equity = np.zeros(data.shape)
portfolio = cash.copy()
portfolio = 1
cash = 1
for i, _row in enumerate(data.iterrows()):
row = _row
if np.isnan(kf[i]):
portfolio[i] += portfolio[i-1]
cash[i] += cash[i-1]
continue

portfolio[i] += cash[i-1] * (1 + r)**(1/252) + equity[i-1] * row['returns']
equity[i] += portfolio[i] * row['kelly_factor']
cash[i] += portfolio[i] * (1 - row['kelly_factor'])

data['cash'] = cash
data['equity'] = equity
data['portfolio'] = portfolio
data['strat_returns'] = data['portfolio'] / data['portfolio'].shift(1)
data['strat_log_returns'] = np.log(data['strat_returns'])
data['strat_cum_returns'] = data['strat_log_returns'].cumsum()
data['cum_returns'] = data['log_returns'].cumsum()
return data


Let’s see how the model performs vs the baseline with moderate leverage.

kelly_sma = KellySMACrossOver(data.copy(), max_leverage=3)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, figsize=(15, 8), sharex=True)
ax.plot(np.exp(kelly_sma['strat_cum_returns'])* 100, label='SMA-Kelly')
ax.plot(np.exp(kelly_sma['_strat_log_returns'].cumsum()) * 100, label='SMA')
ax.set_ylabel('Returns (%)')
ax.set_title('Moving Average Cross-Over Strategy with Kelly Sizing')
ax.legend()

ax.plot(kelly_sma['kelly_factor'])
ax.set_ylabel('Leverage')
ax.set_xlabel('Date')
ax.set_title('Kelly Factor')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()

sma_stats = pd.DataFrame(getStratStats(kelly_sma['log_returns']),
sma_stats = pd.concat([sma_stats,
pd.DataFrame(getStratStats(kelly_sma['strat_log_returns']),
index=['Kelly SMA Model'])])
sma_stats = pd.concat([sma_stats,
pd.DataFrame(getStratStats(kelly_sma['_strat_log_returns']),
index=['SMA Model'])])
sma_stats


The Kelly SMA Model doubles the buy and hold approach in terms of total returns. Like the others, it was in a leveraged long position heading into the COVID crash and got crushed. Moreover, from a risk-adjusted return basis, it performs worse than either a basic SMA model or the buy and hold strategy.

## Trading with the Kelly Criterion

Leverage can be a powerful and dangerous tool by amplifying both gains and losses. Each of the strategies we ran without a cap on the leverage ratio blew up at some point, highlighting the dangers of such an approach. Most traders who do use the Kelly Criterion in their position sizing only trade half or quarter Kelly, i.e. with 50% or 25% of the Kelly factor size. This is to control risk and avoid blowing up, which is a fate much worse than underperforming the market for a few years.

It’s important to note that the Kelly Criterion is not predictive. While it may optimize the long-run growth of your returns, we see that it falls down time and time again when unconstrained because it is looking backwards over a small sample size. To get the most out of it, we’d need to use it in a constrained setting on a diversified strategy over many markets. That way, we’d be developing our stats based on the performance of the strategy, giving us a larger sample size and better estimate while also limiting our leverage. We’ll look at strategies like this in future posts.

For now, if you want to keep up with what we’re doing at Raposa, sign up with your email below! ## Size Really Does Matter: Position Sizing and Controlling your Risk

Social media is replete with examples of people showing how much money they made going all-in on Bitcoin, Tesla, Gamestop, Dogecoin or whatever new fad is out there. These are the lucky ones. Most people bet too large and eventually blow up their account, losing years of hard work and wealth in the process.

If you’re going to make an investment, how much should you put into it? Putting everything into it is going to be taking on a lot of risk (not to mention the stress you’ll be under knowing everything could be taken away) and putting in 0.0001% of your account is likely too little to make any meaningful impact.

Position sizing, e.g. how much to bet on each trade, is an important topic for controlling risk while also trying to maximize your returns. We’re going to explore it with a few different strategies and a simplified, binary example, with code, of course.

In essence, every trade or investment is a bet. You’re putting money down on stock X because you think there’s a decent probability you’ll be able to sell it at a higher price sometime in the future. We never really know what those probabilities are – although with a good backtest, we can come up with some estimates – so most people just go by their gut, or some standard, one-size-fits-all formula.

Let’s imagine we have a simple game where we can guess heads or tails on a coin toss. The thing is, this coin isn’t fair. It has a 52% chance of hitting heads (where we win) and a 48% chance of coming up tails (we lose). If we win a dollar for every dollar we bet, how much should we bet each time?

## Position Sizing Strategies

We’re going to explore 4 position sizing strategies in this simple game: fixed wager, constant portfolio fraction, Martingale, and the Kelly Criterion.

For a fixed wager bet, we’re going to bet the same dollar amount every time up. Many new traders employee this strategy by only betting up to a fixed limit (e.g. $100) to control their losses and emotions. Under the constant portfolio fraction policy, we’ll bet the same percentage of our capital every time. This is a common strategy, even by very experienced traders. For example, it’s common to limit each trade to 2% of one’s trading capital. The Martingale betting system works where we bet a fixed amount unless we lose. If we lose, then we double our bet until we win. So we start with a$1 bet and if we win, then we bet $1 again. If we lose, then we bet$2 to try to get our account back up. If we lose again, then it’s $4,$8, $16, and so forth until we either win or go bust. The Kelly Criterion is another betting strategy, originally devised for betting on horse races, which maximizes the expected value of your wealth over time. It is calculated by taking the probability of a win (52% in our case) and subtracting the probability of a loss (48%) divided by the gross odds of winning minus 1. So if someone gives you 1:1 odds (like in our example) your gross odds are 2 because you win$1 and you get your $1 back ($2 for every $1 bet). If you win$0.50 for a $1 bet, then your gross odds are 1.5 ($1.50 for every $1 bet). We can write the formula as: f^{*} = p - \frac{q}{b-1} where f^{*} is the optimal fraction of our portfolio to bet, pis the probability of winning, q is the probability of losing (1-p), and b are our gross odds. To determine our bet size, we just multiply f^{*}by our capital and we have the result! We’ll run a Monte Carlo simulation with these four models to see how position sizing impacts our results. Start by importing some Python packages. import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from copy import copy  The next step is going to require a simple betting game class. It will return 1 if we win and -1 if we lose. I’ll set the win_odds at 52%. class BettingGame: def __init__(self, win_odds=0.52): self.win_odds = win_odds def play(self): return np.random.choice([-1, 1], p=[1-self.win_odds, self.win_odds])  Now we can write four classes, one for each strategy, that will inherit our BettingGame class. These classes are quite simple. Each will have a bet() method where they implement their betting policy and reset() to delete the data they’ve acquired so they can give it another go. We also have it set up so that if at any point the strategy’s starting capital goes to 0 or below, then this strategy is bankrupt and can’t make any more bets. # Fixed wager, constant fraction, martingale, kelly criterion class FixedWagerStrategy(BettingGame): def __init__(self, capital=10, wager=1, win_odds=0.52): super().__init__() self.init_capital = capital self.wager = 1 self.win_odds = win_odds self.reset() def bet(self): if self.bankrupt: self.capital.append(0) else: size = self.wager result = self.play() self._capital += result * size self.capital.append(self._capital) if self._capital <= 0: self.bankrupt = True def reset(self): self._capital = self.init_capital self.capital = [self._capital] self.bankrupt = False class PortfolioFractionStrategy(BettingGame): def __init__(self, capital=10, fraction=0.02, win_odds=0.52): super().__init__() self.init_capital = capital self.fraction = fraction self.win_odds = win_odds self.reset() def bet(self): if self.bankrupt: self.capital.append(0) else: size = self.fraction * self._capital result = self.play() self._capital += result * size self.capital.append(self._capital) if self._capital <= 0: self.bankrupt = True def reset(self): self._capital = self.init_capital self.capital = [self._capital] self.bankrupt = False class MartingaleStrategy(BettingGame): def __init__(self, capital=10, win_odds=0.52): super().__init__() self.init_capital = capital self.win_odds = win_odds self.reset() def bet(self): if self.bankrupt: self.capital.append(0) else: if self.win: self.size = 1 else: self.size *= 2 result = self.play() self._capital += result * self.size self.win = True if result == 1 else False self.capital.append(self._capital) if self._capital <= 0: self.bankrupt = True def reset(self): self._capital = self.init_capital self.capital = [self._capital] self.win = True self.bankrupt = False self.size = 1 class KellyStrategy(BettingGame): def __init__(self, capital=10, win_odds=0.52): super().__init__() self.init_capital = capital self.win_odds = win_odds self.reset() def bet(self): if self.bankrupt: self.capital.append(0) else: f_star = 2 * self.win_odds - 1 self.size = self._capital * f_star result = self.play() self._capital += result * self.size self.capital.append(self._capital) if self._capital <= 0: self.bankrupt = True def reset(self): self._capital = self.init_capital self.capital = [self._capital] self.bankrupt = False  We’ll start with$10 and toss 1,000 coins. The fixed wager strategy is going to bet $1 every time. The constant portfolio fraction strategy is going to bet 2%, and the Martingale and Kelly strategies are going to operate according to their unique rules. colors = plt.rcParams['axes.prop_cycle'].by_key()['color'] np.random.seed(10) FW = FixedWagerStrategy(win_odds=0.52) PF = PortfolioFractionStrategy(win_odds=0.52) MG = MartingaleStrategy(win_odds=0.52) KC = KellyStrategy(win_odds=0.52) for i in range(1000): FW.bet() MG.bet() KC.bet() PF.bet() plt.figure(figsize=(20, 8)) plt.plot(FW.capital, label='Fixed Wager') plt.plot(PF.capital, label='Constant Fraction') plt.plot(MG.capital, label='Martingale') plt.plot(KC.capital, label='Kelly') plt.xlabel('Number of Bets') plt.ylabel('Account Size ($)')
plt.legend()
plt.show()


In this run we see the martingale strategy takes off quickly, but then goes broke shortly after 200 tosses. This is an issue with Martingale strategies, while they can compound very quickly, they’re also subject to frequent, catastrophic losses, even when the odds are in your favor.

For this round, the fixed wager strategy turned out to be best followed by Kelly and the constant fraction betting systems.

Now this is just a single trial, so we can’t draw many conclusions from these results. In the code below, we’re going to run 1,000 trials of 1,000 tosses each to get a better understanding of the probabilities at play.

FW = FixedWagerStrategy(win_odds=0.52)
PF = PortfolioFractionStrategy(win_odds=0.52)
MG = MartingaleStrategy(win_odds=0.52)
KC = KellyStrategy(win_odds=0.52)
kc_runs = None
fw_runs = None
pf_runs = None
mg_runs = None
for i in range(1000):
FW.reset()
PF.reset()
KC.reset()
MG.reset()
for j in range(1000):
FW.bet()
PF.bet()
MG.bet()
KC.bet()
if pf_runs is None:
pf_runs = np.array(copy(PF.capital))
else:
pf_runs = np.vstack([pf_runs, copy(PF.capital)])
if kc_runs is None:
kc_runs = np.array(copy(KC.capital))
else:
kc_runs = np.vstack([kc_runs, copy(KC.capital)])
if fw_runs is None:
fw_runs = np.array(copy(FW.capital))
else:
fw_runs = np.vstack([fw_runs, copy(FW.capital)])
if mg_runs is None:
mg_runs = np.array(copy(MG.capital))
else:
mg_runs = np.vstack([mg_runs, copy(MG.capital)])

plt.figure(figsize=(20, 8))
plt.plot(fw_runs.mean(axis=0), label='Fixed Wager')
plt.plot(pf_runs.mean(axis=0), label='Constant Fraction')
plt.plot(mg_runs.mean(axis=0), label='Martingale')
plt.plot(kc_runs.mean(axis=0), label='Kelly')
plt.xlabel('Number of Bets')
plt.ylabel('Account Size ($)') plt.title('Mean Returns for Various Money Management Strategies') plt.legend() plt.show()  After our 1,000 trials, the mean of the Martingale system outperforms all others. It does about 35% better than the Kelly Criterion strategy, over 60% better than the fixed wager strategy and over 150% better the constant fraction strategy. But that doesn’t settle it. As we saw above, the Martingale model went bust over time. We can see how many of our simulations ended in bankruptcy: # Percentage of runs that went bankrupt fw_bankrupt = (fw_runs <= 0).any(axis=1).sum() / fw_runs.shape * 100 pf_bankrupt = (pf_runs <= 0).any(axis=1).sum() / pf_runs.shape * 100 kc_bankrupt = (kc_runs <= 0).any(axis=1).sum() / kc_runs.shape * 100 mg_bankrupt = (mg_runs <= 0).any(axis=1).sum()/ mg_runs.shape * 100 print("Percentage of Simulations that Ended in Bankruptcy:") print(f"Martingale:\t\t{mg_bankrupt:.1f}%") print(f"Fixed Wager:\t\t{fw_bankrupt:.1f}%") print(f"Kelly Criterion:\t{kc_bankrupt:.1f}%") print(f"Constant Fraction:\t{pf_bankrupt:.1f}%")  Percentage of Simulations that Ended in Bankruptcy: Martingale: 89.2% Fixed Wager: 44.8% Kelly Criterion: 0.0% Constant Fraction: 0.0% Looking at the bankruptcy totals, we see some of what the mean returns are hiding: ~90% of the Martingale bettors blow up. Surprisingly, 45% of the fixed wager bettors do too, even in a game where they have the edge! Because Kelly and the constant fraction methods scale the size according to the capital on hand, they never get to a point where they blow up. Another way to look at this is by using the median returns rather than the mean in order to see how these models performed. kc_p90 = np.quantile(kc_runs, q=0.9, axis=0) kc_p10 = np.quantile(kc_runs, q=0.1, axis=0) mg_p90 = np.quantile(mg_runs, q=0.9, axis=0) mg_p10 = np.quantile(mg_runs, q=0.1, axis=0) fw_p90 = np.quantile(fw_runs, q=0.9, axis=0) fw_p10 = np.quantile(fw_runs, q=0.1, axis=0) pf_p90 = np.quantile(pf_runs, q=0.9, axis=0) pf_p10 = np.quantile(pf_runs, q=0.1, axis=0) x = np.arange(len(kc_p90)) plt.figure(figsize=(20, 8)) plt.plot(np.median(fw_runs, axis=0), label='Median Fixed Wager', c=colors) plt.plot(np.median(pf_runs, axis=0), label='Median Constant Portfolio Fraction', c=colors) plt.plot(np.median(mg_runs, axis=0), label='Median Martingale', c=colors) plt.plot(np.median(kc_runs, axis=0), label='Median Kelly', c=colors) plt.plot(fw_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(fw_p10, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(pf_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(pf_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(mg_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(mg_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(kc_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.plot(kc_p90, c=colors, linewidth=0.1) plt.fill_between(x, fw_p90, fw_p10, alpha=0.3, color=colors) plt.fill_between(x, pf_p90, pf_p10, alpha=0.3, color=colors) plt.fill_between(x, mg_p90, mg_p10, alpha=0.3, color=colors) plt.fill_between(x, kc_p90, kc_p10, alpha=0.3, color=colors) plt.xlabel('Number of Bets') plt.ylabel('Account Size ($)')
plt.title('Median, 90th and 10th Percentile Returns for Various Money Management Strategies')
plt.ylim([-10, 100])
plt.legend()
plt.show()


In the plot above, I showed the median along with the 90th and 10th percentile of returns. The Martingale strategy got lopped off because you can see it grows rapidly, squeezing everything else down. The lucky 10% that survive a Martingale strategy make tremendous returns, however everyone else goes bankrupt quickly.

The fixed wager strategy has a few that perform well, and, at least the majority of those playing this strategy make it to the end.

The Kelly and constant fraction perform similarly, however the Kelly strategy has a higher median (and mean) as well as a much higher top percentile implying that the Kelly strategy is better than the constant fraction method for this game and these settings.

We can view these results in a histogram to get another view of the differences.

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, 2, figsize=(10, 10))
ax[0, 0].hist(fw_runs[:, -1], color=colors, bins=50)
ax[0, 0].axvline(fw_runs[:, -1].mean(), color='k')
ax[0, 0].axvline(np.median(fw_runs[:, -1]), color='g')
ax[0, 0].annotate(f'Mean = {fw_runs[:, -1].mean():.1f}', xy=(85, 400))
ax[0, 0].annotate(f'Median = {np.median(fw_runs[:, -1]):.1f}', xy=(85, 370))
ax[0, 0].annotate(f'Std Dev = {fw_runs[:, -1].std():.1f}', xy=(85, 340))
ax[0, 0].set_ylabel('Frequency')
ax[0, 0].set_title('Fixed Wager')

ax[0, 1].hist(pf_runs[:, -1], color=colors, bins=50)
ax[0, 1].axvline(pf_runs[:, -1].mean(), color='k', label='Mean')
ax[0, 1].axvline(np.median(pf_runs[:, -1]), color='g', label='Median')
ax[0, 1].annotate(f'Mean = {pf_runs[:, -1].mean():.1f}', xy=(85, 100))
ax[0, 1].annotate(f'Median = {np.median(pf_runs[:, -1]):.1f}', xy=(85, 90))
ax[0, 1].annotate(f'Std Dev = {pf_runs[:, -1].std():.1f}', xy=(85, 80))
ax[0, 1].set_title('Constant Portfolio Fraction')
ax[0, 1].legend()

ax[1, 0].hist(mg_runs[:, -1], color=colors, bins=50)
ax[1, 0].axvline(mg_runs[:, -1].mean(), color='k')
ax[1, 0].axvline(np.median(mg_runs[:, -1]), color='g')
ax[1, 0].annotate(f'Mean = {mg_runs[:, -1].mean():.1f}', xy=(300, 720))
ax[1, 0].annotate(f'Median = {np.median(mg_runs[:, -1]):.1f}', xy=(300, 660))
ax[1, 0].annotate(f'Std Dev = {mg_runs[:, -1].std():.1f}', xy=(300, 600))
ax[1, 0].set_xlabel('Account Size ($)') ax[1, 0].set_ylabel('Frequency') ax[1, 0].set_title('Martingale') ax[1, 1].hist(kc_runs[:, -1], color=colors, bins=50) ax[1, 1].axvline(kc_runs[:, -1].mean(), color='k') ax[1, 1].axvline(np.median(kc_runs[:, -1]), color='g') ax[1, 1].annotate(f'Mean = {kc_runs[:, -1].mean():.1f}', xy=(385, 300)) ax[1, 1].annotate(f'Median = {np.median(kc_runs[:, -1]):.1f}', xy=(385, 275)) ax[1, 1].annotate(f'Std Dev = {kc_runs[:, -1].std():.1f}', xy=(385, 250)) ax[1, 1].set_xlabel('Account Size ($)')
ax[1, 1].set_title('Kelly Criterion')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()


Here we can see the skew of these different money management strategies. The fixed wager strategy has a large number of bankruptcies, but the survivors look somewhat normally distributed. The Martingale model leaves a very lucky (and wealthy) few on the right hand side, but as previously discussed, most end up in bankruptcy.

Most interesting are the constant fraction and Kelly methods. For the first, we’re always betting 2% of our account, for Kelly, we’re always betting 4% of our account (f^* = 2 \times 0.52 - 1 = 0.04). The constant fraction bettors are actually engaging in half-Kelly bets, which is another common strategy to adopt. Simply doubling our bets greatly increased the variance of our results, primarily to the right hand side.

We can see this effect clearly by plotting the performance percentiles and final account size for both strategies.

plt.figure(figsize=(12, 8))
for i in range(10):
q = (i+1) / 10
if q == 1:
q = 0.99
kcq = np.quantile(kc_runs[:, -1], q=q)
pfq = np.quantile(pf_runs[:, -1], q=q)
plt.scatter(q*100, kcq, c=colors, s=500)
plt.scatter(q*100, pfq, c=colors, marker='*', s=500)

plt.xlabel('Percentile')
plt.ylabel('Final Account Size ($)') plt.legend(labels=['Kelly Criterion', 'Constant Fraction']) plt.show()  On the left-hand side, we see the 10th percentile (or bottom 10%) for each strategy, and towards the right, we have the luckier cohorts culiminating in the 99th percentile. The unluckiest Kelly Criterion bettors wind up with final accounts of$4.49 vs \$8.19 for the half-Kelly bettors for a 45% difference. Outperformance of the constant fraction crowd only occurs for the bottom 30% of cases at which point it flips to be decidedly on the full-Kelly betting side. Not only does it favor our Kelly strategy, but the luckiest Kelly bettors are much, much luckier than the luckiest half-Kelly bettors.

And again, all we did was use a simple formula to change our bet size from 2% of our account to 4%.

## Playing the Odds

As stated before, the Kelly Criterion provides the optimal money management strategy to maximize your expected, long term winnings. It’s easy to implement and illustrate in a simple, binary-outcome model like this, but much more difficult to use in trading. For one, when you put on a trade, you don’t have just two outcomes, you have a wide range of outcomes and prices that you could get. If you’re going to apply it to a portfolio, then the multi-asset Kelly Criterion requires solving a quadratic programming problem. Another problem crops up because you don’t often know the odds of each trade.

This last problem is particularly problematic because it can lead to over/under betting. If we’re trying to avoid catastrophic losses to the downside, it’s better to err on the side of caution. For this reason, many traders size using half-Kelly rather than full-Kelly. We can illustrate this below by running our model with a few different levels.

kc1 = PortfolioFractionStrategy(fraction=0.06) # Set to 1.5 kelly
kc2 = PortfolioFractionStrategy(fraction=0.08) # Set to double kelly
kc2_runs, kc1_runs = None, None
for i in range(1000):
kc1.reset()
kc2.reset()
for j in range(1000):
kc1.bet()
kc2.bet()

if kc1_runs is None:
kc1_runs = np.array(kc1.capital)
else:
kc1_runs = np.vstack([kc1_runs, kc1.capital])

if kc2_runs is None:
kc2_runs = np.array(kc2.capital)
else:
kc2_runs = np.vstack([kc2_runs, kc2.capital])


## Money Management Matters

Position sizing is just one aspect of your risk management strategy, albeit an important one. Even with this simple, binary wager case, we can see some of the complexities involved in choosing different position sizing strategies.

There are other strategies that are open to us, of course, particularly in the context of a full trading system. Some traders like to size their position based on volatility, average true range (ATR), or just maintain a fixed position size. There’s more than just maximizing returns that need to be considered to be effective, such as your ability to stay the course when trading. If you’re taking on too much risk, you aren’t going to be able to stick to your plan when things get tough, so find a system that works for you, one that tests well and that enables you to sleep well.

In the future, we’ll roll out full explanations and examples of these different strategies in the context of a backtest, as well as Kelly Criterion examples for a portfolio. Don’t forget to follow to be alerted when new articles are released!